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Integrated Lake Basin Management Based on Natural- artificial Dualistic Hydrological Cycle: Theory and Countermeasures

WANG Hao, QIN Dayong, YAN Denghua etal, China Institute for Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Engineering Research Center for Water Reasources & Ecology, Ministry of Water Resource.
The 13rd World Lake Conference
Lake is important strategic resource. With the rapid growth of human population and urbanization, human activities have been affecting the ecological integrity of lakes and threatening human health within the basin. Water problems in lake basin include eutrophication, water shortage, water pollution and ecological destroy et al. Meanwhile, trans-boundary water affair conflicts and pollution accidents are quickly increasing.
Traditional measures of lake water resources protection mainly on physical, chemical and biological technologies, without taken how the pollutants are produced and transmitted inside the lake basin into consideration. water quantity allocation, operation management, pollution source and water quality management of lake becomes apparently a partition status. Those measures are actually remedial actions carried out after the occurrence of pollution and cannot stop pollution at its source.
Point sources such as pollution from industrial and sewage treatment plants have long been recognized as major pollution sources to the water quality of lake and its connective rivers, and the traditional lake basin management mainly emphasis on point source pollution control. With the increasing awareness of environmental issues related to lake and its basin, non-point source pollution has been considered as the leading cause of lake water quality problems in the world, and its management in China is still in the early stage. Being instant, occasional and random, nonpoint source pollution reduction is more complicated than point source pollution and is a major challenge facing the world and also in China.
The hydrological processes and associated water environmental, ecological and sediment processes have changed by the global change and intensive artificial actions. The most important scientific base and key work is to identify such mechanism and regulation on it.
This kind of control should follow the water flows, pollutants flows, information and money flows, and considering full range of available control options such as administrative, economic, technological and social measures, in order to improve the management efficiency. Generally, limitation or reduction of nutrient and organic matters inputs to the lake body from the sources in
the drainage basin has high control priority.
It is important for China to transform from mitigation after pollution incident to risk assessment and prevention, and establish of early-warning and emergency response mechanism to tackle lake water pollution incident. This indicates that there is a transform from conventional management to contingency management, and integrated lake water pollution control has entered a new stage in China.